With our research we attempt to identify perioperative EEG patterns that can help to improve and personalize EEG-based patient monitoring during general anesthesia.

German Version

We are interested in the perioperative characteristics of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and their value to optimize and individualize monitoring approaches. We further try to evaluate the capability of commercially available EEG-based monitoring devices to support the anesthesiologist with the relevant information from the EEG. Because we are dependent on the acquisition of clinical data of high relevance, we work in close collaboration with PD Stefanie Pilge and PD Stephan Kratzer.

Ongoing Research

Influence of age and cognitive status on the EEG

Until today, the EEG-based monitoring is not individualized. Since factors such as age or cognitive status can alter the EEG and consequently impact the monitoring parameters we try to develop strategies to correct for that.

Understanding the associations between perioperative EEG signatures and the risk of adverse outcomes

In our field of research there is an ongoing discussion regarding the association between intraoperative EEG signatures like EEG burst suppression or a dominant alpha rhythm and its association with the risk of postoperative neurocognitive disorders. While burst suppression may be associated with a higher risk, strong alpha oscillatory activity may be beneficial. We focus on better understanding these associations.

Evaluation of the performance of commercial monitoring devices

A number of commercial, EEG-based monitoring systems are available. They try to translate the EEG activity into a dimensionless index that reflects the hypnotic component anesthesia. Because the algorithms for index calculation are predominately proprietary, we have developed a test stand that allows us to closely evaluate index performance.

Other research

We are also supporting research approaches that use electrophysiological recordings from patients or in animal models, designed to answer questions regarding the mechanisms anesthetics induce states of unconsciousness; the overlap between sleep and anesthesia; the mode of pain-processing under general anesthesia; or the differences in brain electrical activity between wild type and mutant animal models. 

Research Collaborations


  • AG Biosignalanalyse: Prof. G. Schneider
  • AG Experimentelle Pharmakologie des Bewusstseinsverlusts: Prof. R. Haseneder; PD S. Kratzer
  • AG Neurobiologie Schlaf und Anästhesie: PD Thomas Fenzl
  • AG Experimentelle Neuropharmakologie; Prof G. Rammes


  • Paul García, MD, PhD; Columbia University, New York City, NY, USA
  • Vanessa Moll, MD, PhD; Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA / Universitätsspital Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  • PD Berthold Drexler and Prof. Bernd Antkowiak, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany
  • Jamie Sleigh MBChB, FANZCA, MD}, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  • Darren Hight, PhD and PD Heiko Kaiser, University Hospital of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
  • Odmara Barreto Chang, MD, PhD; UCSF, San Francisco, USA
  • Dr. Sebastian Zinn, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Germany
  • Malte Anders, Fraunhofer-Institut für Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie IME, Frankfurt am Main Germany
  • PD Falk von Dincklage, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
  • Dr. Federico Linassi, University-Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy
  • Sergio Vide, MD, Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Porto, Portugal
  • Judith Reiser, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany


  • Dr. David Obert
  • Michael Schneider
  • Marie-Therese Georgii*
  • Leonie Ernst*
  • Jule Schüssler*
  • Rieke Lutz#
  • Claudia Müller#
  • Srdjan Dragovic
  • Sophia Lang
  • Stephanie Klinker

* in collaboration with PD Stefanie Pilge
# in collaboration with PD Stephan Kratzer

Selected Publications:

von Dincklage F, Jurth C, García PS, Schneider G, Kreuzer M Technical considerations when using the EEG export of the SEDLine Root device Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing [forthcoming]

Georgii MT, Pilge S, Schneider G, Kreuzer M State Entropy and Burst Suppression Ratio Can Show Contradictory Relations European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 2020 [forthcoming]

Kreuzer M, Butovas S, García PS, Schneider G, Schwarz C, Antkowiak B, Drexler B Propofol affects cortico-hippocampal interactions via beta3 subunit-containing GABAA receptors IJMS 2020 21(16):5844

Kreuzer M, Stern MA, Hight D, Berger S, Sleigh JW, García PS Spectral and Entropic Features Are Altered by Age in the Electroencephalogram in Patients Under Sevoflurane Anesthesia Anesthesiology, 2020, 132(5):1003-1016.

Berger M, Mark J, Kreuzer M Of Parachutes, Speedometers, and EEG- What evidence do we need to use Devices and Monitors? Anesthesia & Analgesia 2020; 130 (5), 1274-1277

Zanner R, Schneider G, Meyer A, Kochs EF, Kreuzer M Time delay of the qCON monitor and its performance during state transitions Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing 2020, [Online ahead of print]

Kreuzer M, García PS, Brucklacher-Waldert V, Claassen R, Schneider G, Antkowiak B, Drexler B Diazepam and ethanol differently modulate neuronal activity in organotypic cortical cultures BMC Neuroscience 2019, 20, 58

Hesse S, Kreuzer M, Hight D, Gaskell A, Davari P, Singh D, Taylor NB, Whalin MK, Lee S, Sleigh JW, García PS Association of electroencephalogram trajectories during emergence from anaesthesia with delirium in the postanaesthesia care unit: an early sign of postoperative complications. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2019, 122(5):622-634

Hight DF, Gaskell AD, Kreuzer M, Voss LJ, García PS, Sleigh JW Transient electroencephalographic alpha power loss during maintenance anaesthesia British Journal of Anaesthesia 2019, 122(5):635-642

Fleischmann A, Pilge S, Kiel T, Kratzer S, Schneider G, Kreuzer M Substance-specific differences in human electroencephalographic burst suppression patterns Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 2018, 21(12):368

Kreuzer M EEG based monitoring of general anesthesia: Taking the next steps Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience 2017; 11: 56.

For a full list please see here(link is external).

German Version


Dr. Matthias Kreuzer